A biology student carried out an experiment to compare the antibacterial effect of sage leaves extract with that of the antibiotic chloramphenicol at the same concentration. (a) (i) The extract was obtained by crushing mint leaves with a pestle and mortar and soaking them in ethanol. Explain why this might be an effective method of extracting the active ingredient from the mint leaves. (2 marks) (ii) The garlic extract and chloramphenicol were pipetted into separate wells cut into agar gel in a petri dish. A culture of bacteria was spread over the agar, the petri dish was sealed and placed in an incubator at 25°C for 24 hours. An irregular clear zone, where no bacteria grew, remained around each of the wells in the agar. The area of the each clear zone was calculated by assuming it was a circle and measuring the diameter. The estimate made for the mint extract was 3.2 cm. Calculate the area of the clear zone. (2 marks)

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