Question 4 : This question consist of 2 Parts the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and the Analysis of Flavonoids in plants

a) Pfizer–BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

1.Compare the mRNA structure of native SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and the one used in the Pfizer–BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (4)

2Copy and paste the first 12 nucleotides of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein domain of the mRNA sequence (2)


3.What are the first 4 amino acids of this sequence? (2)

4.Write down the DNA template strand from where this sequence was transcribed .

b)With in vitro translation of an RNA into a polypeptide chain, the translation can begin anywhere along the RNA molecule. A synthetic RNA molecule has the sequence; 5′-CGCUUACCACAUGUCGCGAACUCG-3′

  1. many reading frames are possible if this molecule is translated in vitro? (2)

c) Analysis of Flavonoids in plants.

1.. Discuss in details, how to determine whether an extract contains flavonoids or not? (5)

2. Discuss briefly how UV-vis spectroscopy works (5)

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