Instructions

Describe how animal cell culture can be used to understand disease processes and to develop new therapies for clinical use. 2. What were the challenges that had to be overcome to make Agrobavterium useful as a vector for plant transformation? How were these challenges overcome?3. Describe the biochemical steps of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Include in your answer an example of e regulatory mechanism used to control glucose metabolism. 4. Describe FOUR non-fermentation based products that are biosynthesised on an industrial scale using microorganisms. Include in your answer the type of microorganism used and the relevant applications for each product. 5. Describe the advantages of usung a cisgenic plant as opposed to a transgenic plant in plant biotechnology. Support your answer by including an example. 6. Describe the processes involved in culturing mammalian cells in vitro. As part of your answer, describe the stages involved in going from primary culture to the establishment of cell lines and the large scale cultivation of cells for industrial purposes. 7.Describe how human cell culture can be used to understand disease and to develop new therapies. 8. Describe the metabolic steps involved in the fermentation of glucose to lactic acid. Include in your answer a description of the yoghurt production process. 

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