1. Describe the difference between saying that humans and apes descent from common ancestors and saying that humans evolved from apes.

2. You are working in a lab and have been given a tiny specimen to evaluate. You have been told only that it is a biological specimen containing a single type of macromolecule. Before you begin any extensive testing, what information do you need in order to ultimately determine whether this is a protein, carbohydrate, lipid, or nucleic acid?

3. You have been working in a research lab in a university. A colleague has returned from a trip into a rainforest in South America and wants you to investigate some water samples she brought back. You find unfamiliar cells in the water. What are you going to look for to try to identify what kinds of cells they are?

4. The half-life of radium-226 is 1620 years. If a sample of material contains 16 milligrams of radium-226, how long will it take for the sample to contain 1 milligram of radium-226?

5. Why are the atoms of a stable molecule linked together by covalent bonds, but not by ionic bonds?

6. Champagne, a carbonic acid buffer, has a pH of about 2. How can we drink such a strong acid?

7. Suppose you are using a computer program to design a new single-celled organism. Discuss why a flat, plate-like cell will be more efficient in transporting materials than a spherical, ball-like cell of the same volume.

8. What is a radioactive isotope? Explain the use of radioactive isotopes.

9. Assess what might happen if there were no buffers in human cells.

10. Compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

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