Instructions

For each statement, possible answers have been provided (in parenthesis). Choose the correct answer and type it in the space provided. (1 point each, 14 points) mg/dL, and above Blood sugar levels in a hypoglycemic person are below mg/dL in a hyperglycemic person. (70, 100, 130) HbA1C (or just A1C) is (myoglobin, hemoglobin, actin, myosin) to which glucose is bound. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed when the percent of A1C in blood is above — (4.0%, 5.7%, 6.0%, 6.5%) Insulin is a by pancreatic (neurotransmitter, hormone, sugar, polysaccharide) produced (alpha, beta, gamma) cells. In a healthy person, insulin binds to insulin receptors and triggers the opening of glucose transporters in fat and muscle cells, allowing glucose to the bloodstream. (be removed from, be added to be bound to hemoglobin in). In persons with type 1 diabetes, insulin is (produced by beta cells, not produced by beta cells, produced by alpha cells, not produced by alpha cells) in the pancreas , resulting in a glucose build-up in the bloodstream. In persons with type 2 diabetes, prolonged overproduction of insulin leads to the (activation, desensitization) of the insulin receptors, and hence glucose is (brought, not brought) into the cells from the bloodstream. This is called insulin (abundance, disappearance, resistance) and it leads to type 2 diabetes, Glucagon is a hormone that stimulates the hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose, raising a person’s blood sugar. In terms of blood sugar levels, glucagon has the opposite effect of (A1C, beta cells, insulin, epinephrine). When would an emergency glucagon injection likely be administered to a diabetic person? (a person just ate a large meal, a person injected insulin and did not eat, a person injected insulin after a large meal). The person being injected with glucagon was likely having an episode of _ (hypoglycemia, isoglycemia, hyperglycemia). 3. Pathway-Specific Discussion: In the initial stages of the disease, type 2 diabetes is treated with Metformin only, and insulin is not needed. In later years, insulin treatment is often needed. Explain the progression of the disease, describing the initial role of Metformin as a drug, and the eventual need for insulin. (20 points).

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