Instructions

How is urine concentrated and diluted? Incorporate the “single effect”, corticopapillary interstitial osmotic gradient, medullary recycling of urea, diluting segment, and ADH into your answer.

Describe the mechanisms by which changes in plasma osmolality or changes in mean arterial pressure or blood volume affect the secretion of AVP. What degree of increase/decrease in plasma osmolality and of mean arterial pressure or blood volume are needed to increase AVP secretion?

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