Describe how you created the spirogram without using the defined Residual Volume of 1.0 L. Most will use the FRC to start the spirogram, so that instance of including the RV cannot be avoided. There aren’t many wrong answers to doing this. 2) Using the two methods (Figs #1 and #2) of displaying the differences in pulmonary quantities between pre- and post- exercise, contrast the visual interpretation of the differences displayed in both Figures. For example, if in Figure #2, both the IRV and ERV show a decrease (negative % difference), how can you see that in Figure #1? 3) Using the text or another source, define each of the nine pulmonary quantities. 4) Using the concept of the 7-step reflex control pathway (now specific for ventilation), detail the pathway: a. Stimulus – what are the stimuli for neural regulation of ventilation? b. Sensor – what are the sensors, and where are they located? c. Afferent (Input) Path – which cranial nerves carry the stimulus information? d. Integration Center – where is the integration center for the respiratory system? e. Efferent (Output) Path(s) – which nerve(s) carry the motor signals? f. Effector (Target) – What are the target cells of this homeostatic pathway? g. Response – The response is obvious in that ventilation was changed. But why did the change occur in the way that it did, at least with this data that you used?

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