Instructions

1. Events in Plant Evolution

I. Evolution of vascular tissue

II. Evolution of roots and leaves

III. The trend toward reduction of the gametophyte generation

IV. Evolution of the seed

Determine how these events in plant evolution (I to IV) might be related. For example, which would have to come first (in evolution), which next, and so on? Another way to look at this question is to consider which of these events paved the way (or made it possible) for the other events to occur.

Be sure to state evidence for your proposed evolutionary scheme. To do this, it is useful to ask yourself questions like these: Would it have been possible for the seed to evolve without vascular tissue first having evolved? Leaves? And so on. If yes, how could this have occurred? If no, why not (5 points)?

2. Pollen, seeds, flowers, and fruits are considered among the most advanced characteristics in the plant kingdom. What evolutionary advantages does each of these offer (relative to what existed before)?

3. Would you expect internal fertilization to be more common in aquatic or terrestrial environments? Explain your answer.

4. Suspension feeding is extremely common in aquatic organisms but rare in terrestrial organisms. Generate a hypothesis to explain this observation.

5. Describe the traits that distinguish the Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. Describe two traits common to both groups.

6. Explain why the evolution of the exoskeleton was such an important event in the evolution of arthropods.

7. Consider the following:

a. The first arthropods to appear in the fossil record are marine crustaceans and trilobites.

b. terrestrial insects appeared relatively late in arthropod evolution.

c. although most crustaceans are aquatic, the crustacean groups called crabs and isopods each include both aquatic and terrestrial forms, and

d. analyses of DNA sequence data suggest that crustaceans and insects are closely related.

Based on these observations, do you agree or disagree with the hypothesis that arthropods made the water-to-land transition more than once? Explain your reasoning.

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