Describe what is meant by the term ionophore. max 2 marks For ONE of the ionophores valinomycin or gramicidin A, describe the features of its structure that enable it to achieve its effect on ion movement across biological membranes. [4 marks

]Describe Gregor Mendel’s experiments and the basis for the two ‘Mendelian Laws’.

Why do cells withdraw from the cell cycle after exposure to damaging chemicals or X-rays? What role does the MAPK cascade play in cells exposed to damaging chemicals or X-rays?

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