Differentiate between divergent and convergent evolution and between homologous structures and analogous structures. (Concepts: modes of evolution, descent from common ancestor) 17. What are the three requirements that must be met in order for evolution by natural selection to occur? (Concepts: mechanisms of evolution, how natural selection works) 18. Besides natural selection, what are the other three mechanisms that may cause evolution to occur? How do they differ? (Concepts: mechanisms of evolution) 19. Variation is important for evolution, because it provides the fitness differences upon which natural selection operates. Sexual reproduction is an important source of variation in plants and animals, but what about asexually reproducing organisms like bacteria? Where does their variation come from? (Concepts: sexual versus asexual reproduction, mechanisms generating allelic variation) 20. The Phoenix Zoo kept the only remaining population of Arabian Oryx for ten years in captivity. Finally, when the captive population was high enough and the habitat was better protected in Arabia, some of these Oryx were shipped back to Arabia and released into the wild. In the wild most of the newly released Oryx died of starvation, overheating or were killed by predators. Why is this result not unexpected? (Concepts: relationships between genotype and phenotype, relationship between phenotype and natural selection) 21. Do all domesticated dogs belong to the same species? Why or why not? (Concept: species 22. Differentiate between allopatric and sympatric speciation. (Concept: mechanisms of speciation) + 113

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