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Activating DNA repair, activating apoptosis (cell suicide), stopping the cell cycle are all functions of a. caspases b. tumor suppressor genes (tumor suppressor proteins) c. Proto-oncogenes (proto-oncoproteins) d. Oncogenes (oncoproteins) QUESTION 33 All of the following are examples of oncogenes foncoproteins) except: 3. growth factors b. transcription factors c growth factor receptors dinhibitors of DNA synthesis QUESTION 30 Retinoblastoma is caused by mutation(s) in the: a. p53 gene O b. Myc gene O c. none of these answers d. Rb gene QUESTION 31 The mechanisms by which proto-oncogenes can be converted into oncogenes include: a. mutation, gene amplification, polarization O b. proteins, mutations, gene rearrangements c. mutation, gene amplification, chromosomal translocations d. chromosomal translocations, proteins, mutation QUESTION 28 After host cell infection, low-risk strains (in terms of causing cancer) of viruses O a integrate into the host cell DNA O b. remain as independent episomes and do not integrate into the host cell DNA Oo. cause immediate cell lysis d. none of these answers QUESTION 29 Insertional Mutagenesis On viral DNA remains as episome b. viral DNA integrates into the host cell’s DNA, altering the expression of the host gene o none of these answers d. Viral oncogene integrates into the host cell’s DNA

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