Sickle-cell anaemia is an example of how fitness depends on environmental conditions. In places where malaria is common, HbAHbs heterozygotes have a selective advantage compared to individuals who are homozygotes for the wild type allele. However, HbSHbs homozygotes suffer from sickle-cell anaemia and usually die before producing offspring. The reproductive rates for the three genotypes in Nigeria are: HbAHbs HbAHA 2.3 нь нь 0.2 Average offspring/individual 3.0 a) Calculate the relative fitness of each genotype b) What is the selection coefficient (s) for each genotype? c) How would you expect the frequency of the Hbs allele to change in the population over many generations?

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