advantages of using molecules to construct phylogenies include all of the following excepti -A. Molecules provide large numbers of characters h for analysis. – B. Patterns of molecular esolution are understood -c. Molecules can be used to compare extinct and Nina organisms -D. Relative importance of characters is easier to judge 2) Among the first protein molecules to have all of its amino acids Sequenced was: -A cytochrome c – B / Hemoglobin -c. chlorophyll -D. Myoglobin 3) The most accurate method for determining phylogenetic relationships between stoppet decent organisms isi – A. Measuring antigenic differences between two molecules. – B the direct comparison of DNA Sequence of the same (or homologous) gene. mitochondrial DNA -D. using DNA hybridization ملا۔ 4) A phylogery of Chiclid fish in East Africa: to-A. Reveals chiclid fish in different lakes resemble to each other because of convergence rather than because of common descent. -B. was constructed using DNA hybridization -c. was constructed despite the fact that the fish were far apart genetically. -D. Both a and c. 5) A nucleotide sequence comparison that allows Phylogenies to be made that extend back to bacteria is – A. Ribosomal RNA molecules – B. Hemoglobin molecules – Mitochondrial molecules -D Myoglobin molecules 6) Information obtained from sequencing whole genomes Suggest ested which of the following evolutionary events:-A. Extensive hacizontal geos transfer between genomes -B. Considerable amount of gene duplication. -c. 50% of genes have no known function. -D. All of the above. has 7 e and B Hemoglobin Chains evolved from -A. Gene duplication. – B. Chromosomal duplication -c. Mutation and selection for different functions. -D All of the above. Nucleic acid phylogenies based on restriction enzyme sites depend oni A- Restriction enzymes recognizing short (43) specific nucleotide sequences ces and cleaving the DNA at these sites. B- Each species DNA having fragments of Characteristica denaghest length following enzyme restriction. c- Each species having unique cleaving sites for restriction enzymes. D- Both and b. the great advantage of using molecules over morphological characteristics is Quaiding problem of: A. Adaptive radiation -B. Convergence -c. Anagenic evolution -D. All of the above 10) Minimizing zing the number of mutations necessary to drive a given amino acid change in a Protein is referred to as: A. Evolutionary inertia -B. Conservation -C. passimon D. Evolutionary momentum

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