What are the four criteria (refer to your lecture notes) that must be met in order for natural selection to result in the evolution of a phenotypic trait? Also, explain why a trait evolves in a population as a result of these 4 criteria being met (in other words, provide a clear and detailed explanation of why the Irequency of a phenotypic trait would increase across generations as a result of these 4 criteria being met). 2. Explain directional, stabilizing selection, disruptive/ diversifying selection, and sexual selection. 3. Which of the following modes of natural section is acting in each of the following examples: stabilizing, disruptive, or directional selection? Use your textbook, lecture notes, internet, and critical thinking skills to figure these out. a) the evolution of color in the peppered moth popultion during from 1840 to 1900 in industrial areas of England (hint: see lecture notes). hint: homozygous b) the evolution of sickle-cell anemia in humans (hint: homoz dominant individuals are prone to malaria, and homozygous recessiv individuals have the sickle-cell anemia disease; heterozygotes ba protection against both diseases). c) the evolution of eyespots on peacock tails (hint: females prefer mal with more spots). d) the evolution of coat proteins in tuberculosis bacteria subjected to strong, sustained dose of an antibiotic. e) the evolution of human birth weights prior to 1900 (hint: tiny babies huge babies have lower survival than the average sized baby that about 7.5 lbs.).

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