Describe how the kidneys regulate hydrogen and bicarbonate ion concentration in blood.

What are the functions of protein degradation? (2 pts)

              {type answer here}

    ii) What are amino acid or other sequence aspects that appear to correlate with the half-lives of proteins? (2 pts)

            {type answer here}

    iii) Then discuss the following:

                a. What are the steps/characteristics of lysosome centered protein degradation? Discuss any specificities and give an example of at least one protein which is cleared via the lysosomal degradation. (3 pts)

               {type answer here}

                b. What are the steps in the proteasome centered protein degradation via ubiquitination? Include the labeling with ubiquitin and the steps in proteasome and post proteasome processing. Discuss any specificities and give an example of at least one protein which is degraded via ubiquitination and the proteasome. (4 pts)

               {type answer here}

    iv) Protein degradation may also be a way of regulating enzyme activities. What is an example of regulation of a key enzyme of a pathway where a product or effector regulates enzyme activity by increasing or decreasing the rate of degradation of the enzyme protein? (1 pt)

     {type answer here}

5. There are some differences in the way unsaturated fatty acids are catabolized versus standard beta oxidation. What would be the products of the complete oxidation of the cis fatty acid 15:1D9 ? Show your work by including full reactions, names of enzymes and cofactors required for the steps necessary for the catabolism of the given fatty acid. However, if you are just repeating rounds of fatty acid oxidation, you may just state that in a manner similar to what you see in your text on page 677. Be sure to make this specific to the complete catabolism of cis 15:1D9.

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