The tissue systems of the shoot arise from a group of actively dividing cells in the apex of the shoot known as the apical meristem. The epidermal layer’s arises from the outermost one or two layers of the meristem, whereas the cortex, primary vascular tissues, and pith are derived from layers deeper in the meristem. The entire shoot tip is surrounded by small leaf primordia and bud. B. Stem tissue of euditcots Observe the prepared slide of cs & ls. Ranunculus stem, a eudicotyledon. This slide has been treated with a stain that shows lignin as very dark red/purple. Note the single-celled outer epidermal layer (representing the dermal tissue system); the vascular bundles, composed of regions of phloem and xylem (representing the vascular tissue system), and the parenchyma (representing the vascular ground system) surrounding the vascular bundles. The ground tissue can be distinguished as cortex (outer ring) and pith (central region) and these are connected via regions known as pith rays. The fine continuous ring of cells that connects and passes through the vascular bundles is an active meristematic cell layer known as the vascular cambium. This gives rise to new cells, causing the stem to expand. In the space below, draw a tissue diagram of a 14 segment of the cross sectional stem and label the tissue types. Note that this drawing should NOT show individual cells – only outlined boundaries of the tissue types. epidermal layer cortex phloem vascular bundle vascular cambium xylem pith Activity 2 – Stem Draw 14 segment of this epidermis (outer layer) epidermal layer cortex collenchyma (layers below epidermis) parenchyma phloem vascular bundle vascular cambium vascular bundle xylem Xylem phloem pith 1000 um TS section of a Eudicot stem Do not need to include scale bar

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