What are the mechanisms of sympatric speciation? Ans: 19. What do you mean “fixation” of an allele and when does this become more common? Ans: 16. Evolutionary biologists are leaning towards “Genetic drift” leads to a faster pace of evolutionary change than “natural selection”. Explain. Ans: 15. Use the accompanying information to answer the question: Researchers studying a small milkweed population note that some plants produce a toxin and other plants do not. They identify the gene responsible for toxin production. The dominant allele (1) codes for an enzyme that makes the toxin, and the recessive allele (t) codes for a nonfunctional enzyme that cannot produce the toxin. Heterozygotes produce an intermediate amount of toxin. The genotypes of all individuals in the population are determined (see chart) and used to determine the actual allele frequencies in the population. Genotype Frequencies TT Tt 0.56 0.28 0.16 Allele Frequencies T From the chart calculate is the frequencies for T= and t= (Show work) 14. Note the graph below for your answer: 100, Female paired- with male 80 Female with group of males 60 Percentage of females with mature follicles Female with group of castrated males – All-female group Female alone 40 20 Females in natural (winter) habitat 2 5 3 Weeks In the figure above, what conclusions is most logical based on the data?

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