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Which of the following is an accurate statement about primary and secondary cell walls? When a cell produces a secondary cell wall, it is on the outside of the primary cell wall. Primary cell walls are flexible, secondary cell walls are stiff. Primary cell walls contain cellulose and lignin, secondary cell walls contain cellulose and pectin. Primary cell walls can be easily stretched, secondary cell walls cannot. A cell can have either a primary cell wall or a secondary cell wall but not both. Question 2 (3 points) In vertebrate digestion, some types of molecules in food are digested in multi-step processes that in mammals might begin before the molecules reach the small intestine. What are they? lipids and proteins O lipids and nucleic acids O proteins and nucleic acids O carbohydrates and lipids O carbohydrates and proteins Question 3 (3 points) Suppose there is a flaccid cell inside a plant that is experiencing a temporary water shortage. Then there is a good rain that results in an ample water supply for the cell. What kind of water movement will occur first, what direction will the water move, and why will the water move this way? Osmosis out of the cell because solute concentration is higher outside the cell. Osmosis into the cell because solute concentration is higher outside the cell. O Bulk flow into the cell because pressure is higher inside the cell. Bulk flow out of the cell because pressure is higher outside the cell. Osmosis into the cell because solute concentration is higher inside the cell. Question 4 (3 points) How do the Schwann cells help electrical currents travel more rapidly down a neuron’s axon? They increase the rate at which potassium ions flow out of the axon. They prevent sodium ions from leaking out of the axon. They increase the diameter of the axon so there is less resistance to sodium ion diffusion. They increase the rate at which sodium ions flow into the axon. They cause potassium ions to leak out of the axon. Question 5 (3 points) What is the “invention” that allowed terrestrial animals to reproduce sexually without having to release their gametes into bodies of water? Sperm cells have waterproof coverings to prevent desiccation. A specialized structure on the male deposits sperm directly into the reproductive structure of the female. Females obtain sperm by eating males. Desiccation-resistant structures are built on the ground by the animals to deposit gametes into

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