Instructions

Distinguish between oncogenes and proto-oncogenes.

Oncogenes are genes that induce or maintain uncontrolled cellular proliferation associated with cancer. They are mutant forms of proto-oncogenes, which normally function to regulate cell division.
Proto-oncogenes are genes that induce or maintain uncontrolled cellular proliferation associated with cancer. They are mutant forms of oncogenes, which normally function to regulate cell division.

Part B

In what ways can proto-oncogenes be converted to oncogenes?

Check all that apply.

translocations
gene amplification
repositioning of regulatory sequences
point mutations

What is apoptosis?

genetic predisposition to cancer
type of communication between cells
programmed cell birth
programmed cell death

Part B

Under what circumstances do cells undergo this process?

Under what circumstances do cells undergo this process?

It is a natural process involved in a mechanism which leads to cancer formation.
The process occurs only in case of cancer cells formation.
The process occurs only in case of cancer cells destruction.
It is a natural process involved in a protective mechanism against cancer formation.

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