One of the most important functions of DNA Is new protein production/synthesis. Explain the role of (a) transcription and (b) translation in the production/synthesis of proteins. (Concepts: Information flow from DNA to RNA to protein) 10. How many nucleotides are necessary to code for a protein that is 100 amino acids long? Concept: Triplet code, translation) 11. The DNA template strand for a gene is TAC GGC TAA CAT ACT and reads from left to right. What messenger RNA would be sent to the cytoplasm? What about the amino acid (AA) sequence? (Concepts: Complementary sequences, transcription, translation) Second letter UUU) phe Duc Pha VAU} Ty } cro UUA UUG UAA Stop UGA Stop UGG Trp HAGSTOP His CUU CUC CUA CUG > Pro CGA CAG Gin CGG First letter орос тоос олсоос Third letter AAU) Ash AUUT ACU AUC ile ACCU AUA ! ACA AUG Met ACG AGUS AGC The AAC Asn AAA AGALA AAG Lys AGGA GCU GCC GUU GUC GUA GUG GAU GAC ASP GGU GGC val Ala GAAG GCG GAG Glu 12. Explain why some mutations have no effect on the protein for whicha gene codes. Concepts: triplet code, redundancy) 13. Insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream Concepts Gene regulation transcription translation triplet cade epigenetics) . Since all the cells in a person’s body contain the same DNA, why do only our pancreatic cells produce insulin? b. if we insert the human gene for insulin into bacteria, the bacteria will produce human insulin. How is this possible? 14. Explain the purpose of PCR and gel electrophoresis as used in DNA profiling and be able to interpret DNA profiles when used for paternity testing and forensics. (Concerts technical

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