How is mammalian breathing regulated

How do the different specialized respiratory organs differ in structure, exchange mechanism, and efficiency?

Which of the following events occurs in metaphase? sister chromatids separate nuclear envelopes reassemble chromosomes align along equator spindle disappears

The ventilatory threshold marks the onset of hyperventilation. What is the physiological advantage of hyperventilating at this point in the exercise test?

  1. How is pulmonary ventilation defined functionally and mathematically?
  1. Explain breathing rate and tidal volume. How do they respond to graded exercise?

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