For each of the following three scenarios, state TWO different defense mechanisms employed by the organisms, AND briefly explain each specific defense. EXAMPLE: “Milkweed beetles feed on leaves of various milkweed species, the sap of which contains toxic compounds. The beetle bites the main leaf vein which causes the sap to leak out feeds on the drained portion of the leaf.” . The beetle thern Chemical defense: toxic compounds produced by the milkweeds cal defense: the beetle bites the leaf vein to drain the toxins Defense categories to choose from for the following scenarios: immune system, chemical, mechanical, behavioral, partnerships/symbiosis (2 pts.) Seenario 1 Several species of rotifers are fed upon by other aquatic animals. When predators are close by, rotifers have been observed making fast, erratic evasive maneuvers. If predator numbers build up early in the season, these same rotifers appear to send out some kind of signal that triggers later generations to grow spines on their shells. The spines make it more difficult for predators to eat the rotifers due to the “gape factor”, how wide the predator has to open its mouth to accommodate the spines, most do not have a large enough gape. (2 pts.) Scenario 2 Clownfish are commonly found living in and around anemones. They protect their skin from the anemone’s stinging tentacles by producing a thin coat of mucus. The clownfish are brightly colored, with patterns of orange, white and black markings, which makes them stand out from their environment. potential predators come by, the fish swim into the anemone and hang out around its tentacles for protection. (2 pts.) Scenario 3 White-faced capuchin monkeys have to deal with many ectoparasites, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and lice. In addition to grooming each other to remove the parasites, the monkeys will rub their fur with leaves from the piper plant, which contains insect repellent compounds. The leaves also have antiseptic properties, which ward off bacterial and fungal growth. A colony of capuchins will deliberately gather to enthusiastically rub each other down with the leaves, kind of like having a leaf-anointing party

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