Instructions

The two hormones which signal the initiation of lipolysis are and 2. The protein which is activated by protein kinase a, which in turn activates adipose triglyceride lipase is 3. Glycerol which is released by hydrolysis of triacylglycerols is enzymatically converted into which two glycolytic intermediates? and 4. The end product of fatty acid degradation is 5. In the initial stage of fatty acid degradation, the fatty acid is initially conjugated to which in turn is displaced by 6. The reaction described in Question 5 is energetically unfavorable. However energy for the reaction is supplied by the hydrolysis of 7. In order to be transported into the mitochondria, fatty acids require the assistance of which molecule? 8. Fatty acids are oxidized (number) carbons at a time 9. Which two biochemical oxidizing agents are used in fatty acid oxidation? and 10. Complete oxidation of palmitate generates NADH molecules, FADH2 molecules and acetyl CoA molecules (numbers). 11. All of the molecules in Question 10 ultimately produce ATP molecules (number) 12. A fatty acid has a cis-double bond in the A-3 position. During the degradation process, isomerase enzymes will move the double bond to the position (number) and isomerize the double bond from the_to the ____configuration (cis or trans). 13. Fatty acids having an odd number of carbons are oxidized to acetyl CoA and 14. When glucose levels are low, fatty acid metabolism may be altered to produce molecules which may serve as a substitute fuel for glucose. These molecules are called 15. Ketone body synthesis is initiated by self-condensation of two molecules of 16. Ketone bodies are not always unhealthful. However, in excess, they may lead to severe which is very unhealthful. 17. Ketone body production occurs because there is insufficient present to metabolize acetyl-CoA in the Krebs cycle. 18. Ketogenic diets may be good for people which have one of which two conditions?? or 19. Propionyl CoA is metabolized into which Krebs cycle intermediate? 20. The process described in Question 19 requires which vitamin?

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