Glutamate can be used as an artificial substrate for mitochondrial respiration as shown below. When ceramide is added to a mitochondrial suspension respiring in the presence of glutamate, respiration decreases, leading scientists to hypothesize that ceramide might regulate mitochondrial function in vivo. Glutamate Glutamate transporter Intermembrane space MATRIX Glutamate dehydrogenase Glutamate a-ketoglutarate NAD NADH a. How does glutamate act as a substrate for mitochondrial respiration? b. Ceramide-induced inhibition of respiration could be due to several factors. Identify one. c. Mitochondria treated with ceramide were exposed to an uncoupler, but the respiration rate did not increase. What site of inhibition can be ruled out?

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