Explain how one would use the compensator plate to determine the directions associated with high refractive index vibration direction and low refractive index vibration direction in a mineral grain.
Volumes of Hydrologic Reservoirs 96.5 Reservoir Volume (km) Percent of total (%) Ocean 1.338 x 109 Cryosphere (ice caps, glaciers) 2.436 x 107 1.8 Groundwater 2.340 x 107 1.7 Surface water (lakes, rivers) 1.940 x 105 0.014 Soil water 1.700 x 104 0.001 Atmosphere 1.300 x 104 0.001 * These values are based on conversion of water vapor (atmospheric reservoir) and ice (cryosphere reservoir) to an equivalent volume of liquid water. Table 2. Input and Output Fluxes to/from Hydrologic Reservoirs Flux Rate (km/yr) Precipitation on ice caps and glaciers + 5.000 x 103 Precipitation on land + 1.110 x 10 Precipitation on ocean + 3.880 x 105 Freezing of glacial ice from ocean water 8.000 x 102 Evaporation from ocean + 4.370 x 10 Evapotranspiration on land 6.500 x 104 Groundwater discharge to ocean 4.550 x 103 Glacier discharge to ocean + 4.300 x 103 Surface water runoff to ocean 4.095 x 104 Glacier evaporation 2.000 x 103 + Parts of these volume fluxes involve water vapor or snow/ice. These have been converted to liquid water equivalents. (3) A. What is the residence time for water in the oceanic and atmospheric reservoirs? Report your answers in years for both reservoirs, and also report the value in weeks for the atmosphere. [Hint: your answers for Tr-ocean and Tr-at should be >1000 yrs and <1 yr, respectively.] For systems that are at steady state and are also “well mixed” (molecules move around rapidly within the reservoir as they are stored), the residence time, T,, is defined as: T, = volume stored [L] lo volume flux [L” /T] m ass stored [M] mass flux [M/T]) You may recall from discussion in class that the residence time is the amount of time that some small unit of what is being studied will spend in the reservoir before being discharged. Because I = 0 at steady state, you can use either total input flux or total output flux in the denominator of the equations above. Calculating the residence times for continental surface water (rivers, lakes, wetlands) and groundwater is challenging because there are large uncertainties in the input and output fluxes for these systems. For surface water, this calculation is also difficult because the rate of evapotranspiration (ET) from surface water (rivers, lakes, and wetlands) is poorly known. Most continental ET comes from soil moisture, a reservoir distinct from “surface water.” For the current exercise, we assume that 15% (fraction of 0.15) of ET from land comes directly from surface water, with the rest coming from soil water. Thus ET from surface water is: ET = 0.15 X ET on land = (0.15) (6.50 x 10) km/yr = 9.75 x 10 km/yr B. What is the residence time of water in the global surface water reservoir, assuming steady- state conditions? (Hint: total surface water outflow is the sum of ETs and runoff (from Table 2) to the ocean. Another hint: answer should be >0.1 yr and <10 yrs.) C. What is the residence time of water in the global groundwater reservoir, assuming steady- state conditions? (Hint: you may assume that discharge to the ocean is the only output. Another hint: answer should be >100 yrs and <104 yrs.] D. Given the difference in residence times, would the surface water or groundwater reservoir respond most rapidly to changes in flows during a single wet year or a single dry year? (Hint: the answer is the reservoir with the shortest residence time, for which fluxes in/out are large Eart10, Geologic Principles, Homework #5 Page 3 relative to reservoir size.] The answer to this question helps to explain why there is often increased dependence on groundwater during droughts. FYI – residence times for water in surface water and groundwater reservoirs vary enormously from place to place. Unlike the global ocean and atmosphere, surface and groundwater reservoirs are not well mixed on a global basis. The numbers you calculate in this exercise are averages – actual residence times at particular locations could be much longer or shorter. In addition, these systems are not at steady state in many locations, in part because people tend to use surface and groundwater resources in excess of their rate of replenishment.
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