Do the chromosome sets provided include any sex chromosomes? What observations) support this conclusion? S. How would the arrangement of chromosomes be different if prophase of mitosis were being demonstrated? Now look at the genes carried on the chromosomes. In this exercise the simple and somewhat inaccurate assumption is made that eye color is determined by a single gene having two different forms of expression or alleles the Ballele (for brown eyes) and the ballele (for blue eyes). The Ballele is dominant over the recessive ballele. In reality, several different genes determine eye color. Dark eyes may be brown, black or hazel: light-color eyes may be blue, gray, green, etc. Similarly (and even more inaccurately) make the following simplifying assumptions: – hair color may be dark (Dallele) or light (dallele), with D dominant over d • height may be tall (Tallele) or short (t allele), with T dominant overt • face shape may be round (R allele) or elongated (r allele) with R dominant over 6. What is the genotype and phenotype of the Jones woman (red chromosomes) with respect to each of the following? (Recall that genotype is the genetic make-up or actual alleles present, while phenotype is the physical characteristic observed.) (a) Eye color genotype phenotype (b) Hair color genotype phenotype (c) Height genotype phenotype (d) Face shape genotype phenotype What is the genotype and phenotype of the Smith man (blue chromosomes) with respect to each of the following? 7. (a) Eye color genotype phenotype (b) Hair color genotype phenotype (c) Height genotype phenotype (d) Face shape genotype phenotype 12 CHAPTER 10 Genetics I. PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS A. INTRODUCTION The following game of chance has been devised to demonstrate some of the random effects involved in heredity. This activity should also improve understanding of meiosis and genetic terminology. Follow all the directions below. Answer all the questions and complete all the Punnett squares. Then upload the completed version to Canvas Instructions for this process are included in the “Principles of Genetics Responses” assignment in the Canvas module Print out the “Genetics Cards” from the Lab 10 Canvas module and cut out the chromosomes. ( you are not able to print, create your own on paper just like the chromosomes in the file Make sure to label the chromosomes exactly as they are in the file, including colors.) Dump your cards on the table and examine them. Each card represents a single chromosome (replicated with paired chromatids). Notice that some of the chromosomes contain only one gene while others contain two genes. (In reality, all of the chromosomes in your cells contain large numbers of genes.) Notice that the chromosome cards are of two different colors and actually represent two different individuals. The blue chromosomes represent a young man from the Smith family. The red set represents a young woman from the Jones family. Position the two chromosome sets on the laboratory table as they would appear at Prophase I of meiosis in each individual (you will have two sets of cards). Take a “Selfie” with your cards arranged properly. This will be uploaded to Canvas for grading, before proceeding further. Then, answer the following questions: 1. Are these diploid or haploid sets of chromosomes? 2. How many homologous pairs of chromosome cards do you have for each individual? 3. To be accurate for humans, how many chromosome cards total should have been provided for each individual? 117

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