Instructions

    
         

You Must RENAME this Original Word Document to Include your LAST NAME 

1.0 Data Processing, Instruction Cycle and Assembly

1. Define the meaning of computer architecture. Answer è  

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2. Define the concept of a computer platform. Answer è

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3. You are going to purchase a new personal computer, list several hardware and software architecture criteria that will affect your choice. Answer è  

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1.1 Questions – Hardware, Operating Systems, Applications and Middleware

1 Describe the functions of Computer Hardware   Answer è

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2 List four or more several common functions of an operating systems.   Answer è

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3. List two or more programming languages that are frequently used to code operating system software, or programs.   Answer è

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4. Compare the functions of application software with operating system software.   Answer è

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5. List three or more programming languages that are frequently used to code application software, or programs.   Answer è

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6. Describe the functions of motherboard or systems board. Answer è  

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7. Explain the functional difference of computer data stored in a register compared to data stored in a RAM memory module? Answer è  

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8. Describe the function of a computer bus. Answer è

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9. Describe the functions of an Address bus. Answer è

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10. Describe the functions of a Control bus. Answer è

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11. Describe the function of a BIOS. Answer è

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1.2 Questions – Processor Components

1.  Complete the following table and explain the function of the following Processor components.

Processor ComponentsFunction
Control Unit     
ALU Unit     
I/O Unit     
Register     
Backside Bus     

Read the Introduction to Computer Processing and Processor Architecture document

Video – Machine Code Instructions – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mv2XQgpbTNE

Video – How does CPU execute program – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42KTvGYQYnA

Video – The Fetch Execute Cycle – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xfJbpCJSpd8

4. Describe the function of the following processor registers.

RegistersFunction
Instruction Register     
Instruction Pointer     
Data Registers     
Program Status Word     
Accumulator     

1.3 Questions – Processor Performance

1. Your computer’s processor is rated at clock speed of 3.2 GHz. How does the processor’s clock speed affect the processor’s performance? 

Answer è

2. Besides the processor’s clock speed, list three or more factors that will affect your computer overall performance. Answer è

Text Link – Overclocking Pros and Cons – https://www.hardwaresecrets.com/overclocking-pros-and-cons/

3. Some computer users will increase the clock speed above its normal setting, e.g., 3.2 Ghrz to 8 Ghrz. This is process is called overclocking the CPU.  What are the cons of overclocking the CPU? Answer è

1.4 Questions – Instruction Cycle

Read the Introduction to Computer Processing and Processor Architecture document – 3.2.3 Instruction Cycle

1. Describe the functions of a computer instruction.

2. Describe the functions of a computer instruction operation code.  Answer è

3. Describe the functions of a computer instruction operand.  Answer è

4. Describe the function of the FETCH phase of the instruction cycle.  Answer è

5. Describe the function of the DECODE phase of the instruction cycle.  Answer è

6. Describe the function of the EXECUTE phase of the instruction cycle.  Answer è

7. Assume that the operating system is executing and you will click on an icon to start a video game application. (You have not clicked yet,)  Describe the contents on the Instruction Pointer register, while the operation system is executing.  Answer è

8. Assume that the operating system is executing and you click on an icon to start a video game application. (You now have clicked)  The Operating System will “change” the contents on the Instruction Pointer register after you click on the icon.  Describe the contents on the Instruction Pointer register, Answer è

9. The last computer instruction of the video game program may be a HLT (halt) instruction. When the HLT instruction is executed, describe the process that is used to restart the operating system, Answer è

The instruction set, also called instruction set architecture (ISA), is part of a computer that pertains to programming, which is basically machine language. The instruction set provides commands to the processor, to tell it what it needs to do. The instruction set consists of addressing modes, instructions, native data types, registers, memory architecture, interrupt, and exception handling, and external I/O.

Examples of instruction set

    ADD – Add two numbers together.

    COMPARE – Compare numbers.

    IN – Input information from a device, e.g., keyboard.

    JUMP – Jump to designated RAM address.

    JUMP IF – Conditional statement that jumps to a designated RAM address.

    LOAD – Load information from RAM to the CPU.

    OUT – Output information to device, e.g., monitor.

    STORE – Store information to RAM.

10. What is the purpose of a JUMP (Jump) operation code? Answer è

10. What is the purpose of a JUMP  IF (Jump) operation code? Answer è

11. What is the purpose of a MV (Move) operation code? Answer è

Microprocessor instructions are based on an Assembly Language Format? Use a table like Slide 20 in the Processor presentation and look at the example starting at slide.  A Variable Name, e.g., NUMBER1 used below, is a symbolic name of a memory address, e.g., 1005. 

1.5 Questions – Pseudo Assembly Language

1. Write an assembly language program that provides the following task to calculate your average test score for two test scores.  Remember, assembly language programs use memory addresses instead of variable names.   It uses simple codes to represent operations, e.g., MV, to move or store data.

Use the yellow addresses to store the computer instructions.  Use the blue addresses to store the data, i.e., hours, rate and pay,

Test 1 = 80

Test 2 = 85

Total Test Scores = Test 1 + Test 2

Average Test Score = Total Test Scores/ 2  

Memory AddressContents
999another program
1000 
1001 
1002 
1003 
1004 
1005 
1006 
1007 
1008 
Inside the Processor ( Instruction Pointer, Instruction Register, Data Register 1, Data Register 2, Accumulator  Register
IP 
IR 
REG1 
REG2 
ACC  .  

1.6 Questions – Pipelines and Superscalar Architectures

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_do_pipelining_and_the_system_clock_affect_processing_speed

http://www.csi.ucd.ie/staff/jcarthy/home/alp/alp7.pdf

http://www.scs.gmu.edu/~jwallin/c702s06/lecture/l02/lecture2.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superscalar

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_level_parallelism

Instruction pipeline – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_pipeline

 How is superscalar design different from pipelining design? What are their advantages and disadvantages? http://www.cs.umd.edu/~meesh/cmsc411/website/projects/microproc/topics.html

The Microarchitecture of Superscalar Processors –  http://garga.iet.unipi.it/II/the-microarchitecture-of-superscalar.pdf

2. Describe how will instruction pipelining help the performance of your processor? Be specific Answer è 

3. Describe how superscalar processing will improve the performance of your processor? Answer è 

1.12 Questions – Control Blocks and Tables

Read the Introduction to Memory and Task Management document

Text link – Process Control Block

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/operating-system6.htm

Text Link – z/OS Control Blocks for Beginners (a little advanced)

http://www.trainersfriend.com/Papers/SHARE-Denver-Control-blocks.pdf

Test Link – What are control blocks? (a little advanced)

http://idcp.marist.edu/pdfs/ztidbitz/31%20zNibbler%20%28zOS%20Control%20Blocks%29.pdf

Text Link – Control Blocks for Beginners Pt 1: The Basics

 http://www.longpelaexpertise.com.au/ezine/CtBlksBeginners1.php

Text Link – Control Blocks for Beginners Pt 2: z/OS Control Blocks

http://www.longpelaexpertise.com.au/ezine/CtBlksBeginners2.php

Text Link – ABCs of Control Blocks 

http://idcp.marist.edu/pdfs/ztidbitz/31%20zNibbler%20(zOS%20Control%20Blocks).pdf

Text Link – Process control block

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_control_block

Task Control Block

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Task_Control_Block

Text Link- How do Process Control Blocks work? (Task Control Block)

 http://computer.howstuffworks.com/operating-system6.htm

Text Link – Resource Control

 http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/zos/v1r11/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.zos.r11.ieaa600/ienqrt.htm

Control blocks are special areas of memory which enables the operating system to remember where it left off.  But, every time the operating system switches between processes it incurs a performance or overhead penalty. Control blocks may also contain status information. For example, how many processors and cores do I have? (A System Control Block) How storage devices do I have? (A Resource Control Block) How many jobs do I have waiting to be processed or currently executing? (A Job Control Block)  An operating system can be viewed as an executing program managed by the data stored in the control blocks.

Tables are constructed to store information for each category of control block the operating system manages

Many Definitions may be found in the Glossary of the Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics books

1. What is the function of an operating system control block? Answer:

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2.0 Instruction Sets and Architecture

2.1 Instruction Sets – The Vocabulary of a Processor

Video – How the CPU Works In One Lesson

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNN_tTXABUA

Video – What is x86..??What is an Instruction Set Architecture..??32-Bit vs. 64-Bit

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_o-nUzbWR0

2.2 Questions – Instruction Set Architectures

Read the Introduction to Computer Processing and Processor Architecture document

1. What is function of an instruction set? Answer è 

2.3 32-bit versus 64-bit Architectures

Many modern laptops and servers are based on a 64-bit architecture. Compared to a 32-bit processor a 64-bit processor can process more data with each computer cycle, has a larger and more powerful instruction set, and can “theoretically” access 16 extabytes (EB) of physical or virtual memory. But, most laptops have only 8 or 16 gigabytes (GB) of physical memory.

While a 64-bit processor can access 16 extabytes of memory, no server can have 16 extabytes of “installed” physical memory.  IBM introduced a virtual memory management operating system (OS/360) in mid-1960s to enable a system to execute programs larger than the installed physical memory. Decades later most other computer hardware and operating systems also introduced Virtual Memory Management.

Technical Review – Virtual Memory Management (VMM) is a technique that enables a computer system to execute programs and data larger than the installed physical memory.  During program execution unused pages (sections) will be temporally stored on disk or in flash memory storage and automatically returned to physical memory as needed during execution. The advantage of VMM is to be able to execute larger programs or a greater number smaller programs with limited physical memory.   

Using the analogy of a student preparing a major research paper on their classroom desktop one may better understand how Virtual Memory Management works. During the process of preparing the research paper, the student has mountains of borrowed library research books, document copies, and other reference material so physically large that not all of these reference materials can fit on the student’s desktop. As a result the student may temporarily place some of the overflow research reference materials on a separate table, book bag, or even the floor to be read later. The student does not want to return the borrowed research books to the library because they are in the “process” of working on the research paper. 

An application program similarly needs to be stored in physical memory, like a desktop, to be executed. When the physical memory is full, a virtual memory operating system will temporarily store pieces of the program called “pages” on a disk or in flash memory. Each executing program page will be assigned a unique identifier called a virtual memory address. During program execution an operating system table will remember the current location of the page. Is the page, or virtual memory address, stored in physical memory? Or is the page, or virtual memory address, stored on the disk?

When the page is required to be executed, the virtual memory operating system automatically returns the application program page to be executed. Virtual memory operating system can execute larger or a greater number of programs that exceed the capacity of physical memory. The bad news is that using the disk for the virtual memory overflow slows down the net processing performed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_memory

Applying a library analogy, is the library book on the book shelf or is the book “out on loan” being read by another student? The library book has an identifier similar to a virtual memory address. The librarian maintains a book inventory which lists the current status and location of the book similar to the use of a virtual memory list which specifies the status and location of a program page in physical memory or on disk.

Comparison of System z14 and HP Server Hardware Platforms

Returning to the 64-bit processor example, the more physical memory a processor can access, the greater the amount of virtual memory, either real or disk, an operating system can manage. 

No other 64-bit server can approach the processing performance of an IBM z13, 64-bit server. The bottom line not all 64-bit architectures are the same! System z14 architectures can:

  1. Manage up to 32-terabytes of physical memory and 16-extabytes of virtual memory
  2. Assign 40 processors and 196 processor cores per system to execute tasks, and
  3. Execute at a processor speed of 5.2 -gigahertz without any errors associated with all other faster processor speeds. 

As a comparison ach high performance HP server architectures can:

  1. Manage up to two terabytes of physical memory and 16-extabytes of virtual memory,
  2. Assign two processors and 5 – 18 cores per system to execute tasks, and,
  3. Execute at a processor speed of 3.4 gigahertz.

One 64-bit z14 System z Server will have the comparable processing capacity comparable up to 8000 HP high performance Linux servers. There is no other server alternative to System z servers in terms of performance, scalability, and reliability. HP high performance Linux or Windows-based servers may be cost-effective alternatives for smaller workload requirements, but cannot compete with 64-bit z14 System z Z/OS or Linux servers for intermediate to large workloads.  

Read the Introduction to Computer Processing and Processor Architecture document

2.3 Questions Architectures

1. Provide a detailed definition of the following Concepts

ConceptsDefinition
Application   
Process   
Thread   
Service   
Daemon   

2. Explain the concept of a Windows or Linux task.  Answer è 

3. Explain the concept of a z System Mainframe JOB.  Answer è 

4. Explain the concept of a z System Mainframe Address Space ID (ASID)   Answer è 

2.4 Questions – Multitasking and Multithreading Concepts

Text link – What is time sharing operating system (with example)?

https://www.quora.com/What-is-time-sharing-operating-system-with-example

Text Link – Difference between Multiprogramming, Multitasking, Multiprocessing and Multithreading

Text Link – What are the advantages of multiprogramming?

https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-of-multiprogramming

Text Link – What is Context Switching in Operating System?

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/what-is-context-switching-in-operating-system

Text Link – Human Context switching can kill up to 80% of your productive time

Text Link- Preemptive Vs Non Preemptive and Multitasking vs Multithreading

 Video – Batch vs Real time Processing

1.  Provide a detailed definition of the following Multitasking, Multiprogramming, or Time Sharing concepts. 

Multitasking and Multiuser ConceptsDefinition
Time Sharing     
Multitasking     
Multiprogramming     
Context Switching     
Cooperative Multitasking     
Preemptive Multitasking     
Batch Processing     
Real Time Processing     

2.5 – Comparing ASCII, EBCDIC, HEX and Binary 

Enter your Last name in the top row, starting with a capital-case letter, followed by lower-case letters. Follow your last name by a space, and then by any three-digit number.

For example the following table should display something similar to “Marsilio 111”

  1. Convert the Last Name Line to an ASCII character’s decimal value in Line 1 from the Simotime table, or any other source.
  2. Convert the Last Name Line to an EBCDIC character’s decimal value in Line 2 from the Simotime table, or any other source.
  3. Convert the Last Name Line to a hexadecimal value for the character encoded in ASCII in Line 3 from the Simotime table, or any other source.
  4. Convert the Last Name Line to a 8 bit binary value for the character encoded in ASCII in Line 4 from the Simotime table, or any other source.
 Last Name                
1ASCII                  
2EBCDIC                  
3HEX of ASCII                
4Binary of ASCII                

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