2. Explain the detailed molecular mechanisms of the lac operon in regulating diauxic growth experienced by E. coli cells cultured in a medium containing both glucose and lactose. In addition, the knowledge derived from this transcriptional regulation has been used to develop various molecular tools for scientific research. Please give at least two examples of these tools and explain how the lac operon is applied accordingly

3. How does ribosome ensure correct base paring between tRNA and mRNA?

4. Write the formula and calculate the following:

(a) For the new species with 400 Mb genome size, you have 20 Gb of DNA sequencing

data. What is the genome coverage of this sequencing experiment?

(b) If 8 base pairs of DNA is used as a barcode in a single-cell experiment, how many

cells can you distinguish?

(c) You have designed the following primer for PCR site-directed mutagenesis for

insertion of sequence. The lower case letters represent sequences you want to add, and

the upper case letters represent sequences with homology to the DNA template. What

is the Tm based on the formula: (number of G or C*4)+(number of A or T*2)?


(d) If you start with 5 copies of DNA template, how many copies of the same sequence

youíll get after 25 cycles of PCR?

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