Instructions

We explained three ways in which viruses could transform human cells, leading to the formation of tumors.

A. Using diagrams to illustrate the location of the viral genome, explain all three, noting which type of human gene is altered, and how the alteration leads to possible tumor formation. The vocabulary words “provirus” and “plasmid” should appear in your answers.

B. Sketch the entry of a Retrovirus into a cell. In which of the three tumorigenesis mechanisms can retroviruses participate?

C. Describe TWO experiments you could use to determine whether or not a Retroviral provirus was integrated at a specific place within a human host cell.

D. Retroviruses have an envelope; Polyomaviruses (which also cause cancer) do not. Which are harder to kill? Why? What level of disinfectants are needed to kill them? List two such disinfectants, and state their mechanism of action.

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