Instructions

Discuss (in detail) what the following features with regard to living systems imply/mean. (2 x 5=10) 4.1 Chemical uniqueness 4.2 Complexity and hierarchical organisation 4.3 Metabolism 4.4 Possession of a genetic programme 4.5 Environmental interaction

Aorta Pulmonary artery Anterior vena cava Pulmonary artery Right atrium Left atrium Pulmonary veins Pulmonary veins Semilunar valve Atrioventricular valve Semilunar valve Atrioventricular valve Posterior vena cava Right Left ventricle ventricle Using the number structures on the circulatory system diagram above identify the organ by number: Aorta Dorsal Aorta Pulmonary Trunk Common carotid Left & Right Carotid Coronary vessels Left Subclavian Right Subclavian Right Brachiocephalic Right Atrium Left Atrium Intercostal Ventricle Name or identify the structure. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Membrane over the heart. Airway from mouth to lungs Blood supply to head and neck Lower heart chambers Blood supply to lower body Large veins that return blood to the heart 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. (returns to the heart) 12. 13. abdominal and thoracic cavity) 14. Vessel that leaves the heart and joins aorta Used to make noises (voicebox) Arteries on heart surface. Supplies blood to the arms Drains blood from the head and brain Splits into the left and right carotid arteries Muscle to aid breathing (separates Gland that secretes hormones Male The scrotal sacs at the posterior end of the pig (between the legs), testes are located in each sac. Cutting open the scrotal sac will allow you to see the testes. (Testes is plural, testis is singular.) Coiled around the testis is the epididymis. Sperm cells produced in the testes pass through the epididymis and into a tube called the vas deferens (in humans, a vasectomy involves cutting this tube). The vas deferens connects and fuses with the urethra near the posterior surface of the urinary bladder. In this location the seminal vesicles (a pair of glands) and prostate (a single gland) gland are also visible (depending on the age of the pig), adding secretions to the sperm, creating the semen or seminal fluid. Sperm or urine travel down the urethra towards the penis and the urogenital opening (not at the same time). Located in the pelvis is the last pair of glands that adds to the semen, the paired bulbourethral glands. The penis can be located just posterior to the umbilical cord, held within the body, surrounded by erectile tissue. This tube-like structure eventually exits out the urogenital opening Coiled around the testis is the epididymis. Sperm cells produced in the testes pass through the epididymis and into a tube called the vas deferens (in humans, a vasectomy involves cutting this tube). The vas deferens connects and fuses with the urethra near the posterior surface of the urinary bladder. In this location the seminal vesicles (a pair of glands) and prostate (a single gland) gland are also visible (depending on the age of the pig), adding secretions to the sperm, creating the semen or seminal fluid. Sperm or urine travel down the urethra towards the penis and the urogenital opening (not at the same time). Located in the pelvis is the last pair of glands that adds to the semen, the paired bulbourethral glands. The penis can be located just posterior to the umbilical cord, held within the body, surrounded by erectile tissue. This tube-like structure eventually exits out the urogenital opening. Livingstone BIODAC Ny/% Female In the female pig, a small, bean shaped ovary can be found located in the abdomen on either side of the bladder. Lying in close contact to the ovaries are the very narrow and curly oviducts. The oviducts do not connect directly to the ovary, they are more funnel shaped with fine, finger like projections called fimbrae. The fimbrae partially enclose the ovary and help catch and collect the eggs into the oviduct. Fertilization of the egg will occur in the oviducts. The narrow, curled oviducts widen into the paired uterine horns, the site of gestation and development of the fetuses. Piglets develop in the uterine horns, where a female can produce 12 or more piglets. The uterine horns fuse to form the muscular body of the uterus. The body of the uterus is connected to the urogenital sinus by the vagina. The vagina is dorsal to the urethra and is the organ of copulation. The urogenital sinus opens to the outside of the body through the urogenital opening covered by the urogenital papilla. Use the bold structures above to label the diagram: Livingstone BODIDAC

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