Cancer cells are so poorly differentiated and abnormal in appearance that little resemblance to the cells of the tissue in which the tumor arose a. Anaplastic b. Sarcoma Cancer c. Neoplasia d. Dysplasia 2. Which is NOT a typical mechanism by which a proto-oncogene is converted to an oncogene? A Complete deletion of the proto-oncogene B Amplification of the proto-oncogene CA chromosomal translocation resulting in the up-regulation of the proto-oncogene DA point mutation in the proto-oncogene 3. Experiments using temperature-sensitive mutants of RSV to infect chicken embryo fibroblasts demonstrated that Infection with RSV is necessary to initiate transformation of these cells, but the RSV genome is not needed to maintain the transformed state. The RSV transforming gene is necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of transformation in these cells. Infection with RSV alone is una ble to transform these cells. Cells infected with RSV continue to exhibit normal cellular morphology. A. B. C. D. None of the above. E. Once a cell has been infected with a virus, how might vi ral genes be transmitted from mother to daughter cells? Viral DNA carries its own replication machinery, replicating its own genome independently of host enzymes. Viral DNA may be integrated into the host cell’s chromosomes, so that it is replicated along with host DNA prior to cell division. Viral DNA may be linked to host DNA through protein bridges, allowing it to tag along with host chrom osom al DNA during cell division. 4 A. В. С. Band C D. All of the above. E. Gene amplification can be detected by Observation of hom ogeneously staining regions using microscopy. A. Deletion of the arm of a chromosome. В. un Observation of extrachromosomal “double minutes C. D. A and C. None of the above. E. The transforming abilities of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein are due primarily to the 6 deregulated firing of its tyrosine kinase, which is equivalent to what domain of the normal Abl protein? (Level 2) The SH1 domain A. B The SH2 domain с. The SH3 domain The DNA binding domain None of the above D. E. 7. You are growing NIH 3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblasts) ina Petri dish. You provide these cells with a medi um containing amino acids, glucose, vitamins, and salts necessary for their survival, but you run out of serum to supplement the medium. Without the addition of serum, what will MOST likely happen to these cells? (Level 3) The cells will die. A The cells will continue to grow and proliferate as usual. В. The cells will remain viable, but will not grow and divide. The cells will prol iferate at a higher than normal rate. None of the above. C. D. E. 8. In cells infected with simian sarcoma virus, the sis oncogene causes the cells to release increased amounts of Sis protein, which is recognized by PDGF-receptor molecules on the cells” surface. This type of signaling loop is an example of Endocrine signaling. Paracrine signaling. Autocrine signaling. A. В. C. Trans-receptor signaling. None of the above. D. E. 9.Scientists may map the insertion sites of viruses in DNA isolated from tumors that formed following retroviral infection in order to A. Identify the viral genes responsible for transformation B. Discover new proto-oncogenes. C. Determine how viruses suppress tumorigenesis. D. Understand how viruses infect cells. E. All of the above.
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