Cancer cells often have abnormal patterns of chromatin modifications. In some cancers, the DNA repair gene BRCA1 displays abnormal methylation in its promoter region. Would you expect to see hypomethylation (too little) or hypermethylation (too much) in the BRCA1 promoter of cancer cells? Why would this contribute to tumor development? NOTE: if you are not familiar with the function of the BRCA1 gene product, look it up! The Gene Chapter Titles: “That Damned, Elusive Pimpernel” (p. 161-171), Regulation, Replication, Recombination (p. 172-184), and The Hunger Winter (p. 391-408) 1) What did the following scientific teams contribute to our understanding of genes/gene expression? Beadle and Tatum Jacob and Monod 2) What are Jacob and Monod’s three cardinal principles of gene regulation? 3) Mukherjee discusses the role of epigenetic modifications in maintaining cellular identity (development) and converting historical memory into cellular memory (e.g. Dutch Hunger Winter impacts on multiple generations). The discovery of epigenetics has once again changed our understanding of the genome, genes, and gene expression. Despite the value of our advanced understanding of epigenetics, Mukherjee warns that epigenetics is on the verge of transforming into a dangerous idea”. Explain his concerns and describe a strategy to prevent (or limit the effects of) this transformation.

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