Instructions

Seeds of winter barley germinate in late summer or fall, but plants will only flower after they have experienced 6 or more weeks of winter-cold. This means that plants will not-flower: prematurely before winter, but will be ready to flower at the onset of spring. I 1 The period of cold that stimulates developmental changes in plants is called ‘vernalization’, and therefore winter barley is termed:’vernalization requiring’. Interestingly, winter barley plants do not need a continuous-6-weeks of cold to start the transition to flowering. Rather, they keep a tally of how many days of cold they’ve been exposed to, which is why people say they have a ‘memory of winter’. The basis of this memory must be epigenetic since it does not involve changes in nucleotide sequence. I (c)-What exactly will happen to the DNA when a methyl group is incorporated and how will: this affect transcription? (2 pt) 1 (d)»As well as directly affecting transcription, DNA-methylation-indirectly affects transcription through other avenues of DNA packaging. Draw-a-diagram-illustrating these indirect effects, again making reference to the VRN1.locus before and after vernalization, any enzymes involved, and the specific modifications at play. (4 pts) 1 (e)>More generally than the flowering time example, how-is-DNA-methylation passed-on-to- daughter cells? (2 pts) 1

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