How does the specificity of innate immunity differ from that of adaptive immunity? What are examples of microbial substances recognized by the innate immune system, and what are the receptors for these substances? What is the inflammasome, and how is it stimulated? What are the mechanisms by which the epithelium of the skin prevents entry of microbes? How do phagocytes ingest and kill microbes? What is the role of MHC molecules in the recognition of infected cells by NK cells, and what is the physiologic significance of this recognition? What are the roles of the cytokines TNF, IL-12, and type I interferons in defense against infections? How do innate immune responses enhance adaptive immunity?

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