1. An education researcher interested in the consistency of school absenteeism over time studied a sample of 8 high school students for whom school records were available. The researcher counted the number of days each student had missed while in the 6th grade and then in the 10th grade. He obtained the following results:

Calculate and test (using the .05 level of significance) the Pearson’s correlation between the number of days these students were absent from sixth grade and later from tenth grade.

2. The table below displays the 9 Massachusetts law schools along with their prestige rankings and year they were established. Measure and test the relationship between prestige ranking and year established using a .05 level of significance.

3. The following cross-tabulation displays data for a sample of survey respondents on social class and optimism/pessimism concerning the economy.

a. Calculate and interpret the appropriate percentages for the cross-tabulation.

b. Test for differences in optimism/pessimism based on social class at the .05 level of significance.

c. Calculate an appropriate measure of association between social class and optimism/pessimism.

4. Hoping to inspire goodwill toward the less fortunate during the holiday season, WalletHub compared the most populated U.S. cities across 21 key metrics to determine where Americans are most economically disadvantaged. Based on such indicators as the child poverty rate, the food-insecurity rate, and the uninsured rate, they ranked cities in terms of “neediness,” where 1 was the neediest (Detroit had that unfortunate distinction). From their list of neediness rankings, the following 14 cities were selected at random and matched to their homicide rates per 100,000 population.

a. Calculate the strength of association between neediness and homicide (Note: be sure to re-rank the cities).

b. Using the .05 level of significance, test to see if cities with greater neediness have higher rates of homicide.

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