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Pungi appear in the fossil record after animals, but this is probably due to the selective bias VI. Kingdom Fungi. ructure and die entstence or efhebudicetur edycy, tels probable that fungi were the first truly multicellular Kingdom to evolve This kingdom contains eukaryotic, mostly multicellular larger organisms, yeast are the only microscopic single-celled fungi. They reproduce via spores tiny cells that develop into new fungus is composed of a mat of tangled thread-like hyphae, collectively called the mycellum The mushrooms that we are so familiar with are the fruiting bodies or spore-producing structures the reproductive organs of a fungus whose true “body” is underground. If you dig up the earth in a fertile forest, you are likely to uncover a network of thin white threads. These are the mycelia of fungi, growing through the soil in search of organic matter to absorb for dinner. People are not fond of mold on their food, or athlete’s foot fungus growing between their toes. However, people value fungi for many reasons. Fungi, including mushrooms like shiitake and truflles, are wonderful food to eat. Yeast cause fermentation, and are vital in the production of bread and all alcoholic beverages including wine and beer. Fungi also produce drugs – everything from penicillin derived from a mold, to the potentially lethal hallucinogenic psilocybin, which is derived from wild “shrooms”. Probably the most beneficial role of fungi is as decomposers in ecosystems. As the fungi break down dead and decaying matter for their own nutrition, they also recycle chemicals. Another role play fungi is in their partnership with plant roots. These symbiotic fungi “feed” many plants in a typical forest. Activity on the Kingdom Eungi. 1. Examine the living and preserved specimens, illustrations, and models of fungi. Use these to determine the characteristics of cach fungus group. Fill in the data in Table 5. Table 5. Data on Characteristics of Fungus Groups. FUNGUS GROUP NAMES, DESCRIPTION Yeast Description: e.g. Baker’s yeast Molds Description: e.g. Bread mold Mushrooms Description: e.g. Button mushrooms Questions on the Kingdom Fungi. 11 Biology 21 Rev. Oct es sive is amoeba alive? What is the defe 1. Give two reasons why fungi are not placed in the plant kingdom. 2. How do typical multicellular fungi get their nutrition? 3. How can fungi be beneficial to humans and to ecosystems? VII. Review Questions. 1. Name the two types of prokaryotes, and the four groups of eukaryotes. Give an example of each type. 2. Which domain appeared first in the fossil record? 3. How might coacervates represent a stage in chemical evolution? 4. What features of Euglena, Amoeba, and Paramecium cause them to be classified in Kingdom Protista? 5. Why are kelp, huge seaweeds that have billions of cells, classified as protists? 7. How are fungi important to maintaining life on Earth today?

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