Identify which of the following are examples of directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection, and give the reasons for your choice. Draw a graph of what the populations look like before and after selection has taken place. Email me these graphs with the completed cladograms. 3.1 A species of plant grows in a location where there is a high soil concentration of a chemical that inhibits seed production Individuals vary in their ability to resist the detrimental effects of the chemical (such that greater resistance results in more seeds), and resistance is heritable. How will selection affect resistance to this chemical? (5 pts.) 3.2 A species of hummingbird feeds on nectar of a particular plant whose flowers form a slender cup whose depth varies only a little from plant to plant. Beak length is a heritable trait that varies among individuals. The birds’ beaks must be long enough to feed within the flower, but beaks are also heavy and make flying more costly in terms of energy. How will selection affect beak length? (5 pts.) 3.3 Some clams lay on the surface of the benthos (ie, sea floor) and feed on particles of organic matter filtered out of the water running across their gills. Feeding is more difficult if the clam is tossed around by currents or tides, especially if the clam is rolled into an area of heavy sit or sand. One feature that affects the stability of a clam is the thickness of the shell, especially the thickness of the half upon which the clam resis. Thicker shells are heavier, so moving water will have to exert a greater force to move a clam with a heavier shell. If shell thickness varies among individual clams and is heritable, how will selection affect shell thickness? (5 pts.) 3.4 Males of a species of fish have two mating strategies. Some engage in aggressive conflicts with other males, where success results in access to females laying eggs. Other males avoid conflict and attempt to sneak into nests and fertilize a female’s eggs while other males are not around, Body size is a heritable trait that varies among individuals. Larger males tend to be more successful in aggressive conflicts, whereas smaller males are better at hiding and darting into unguarded nests. How will selection affect body size? (6 pts.

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