Order instructions

Lists and describes with sufficient clarity and detail the specific steps taken to build trust with stakeholders in relation to the change.

We should begin by repeating the definition of punishment stated earlier in the book. Punishment is the administration of an aversive event or the withdrawal of a positive event or stimulus, which in, turn decreases the likelihood that a particular behavior will be repeated. Examples of punishment might include verbal reprimands, being moved to a less prestigious office, having pay docked, being fired, being made to run several laps around an athletic field, or losing eligibility for a sport entirely. We should note that, according to this definition, only those aversive events administered on a contingent basis are considered to be forms of punishment; aversive events administered on a no contingent basis may constitute harsh and abusive treatment but are not punishment. Additionally, punishment appears to be in the eve of the beholder; aversive events that effectively change the direction, intensity, or persistence of one follower’s behavior may have no effect on another’s. It is even possible that some followers may find the administration of a noxious event or the removal of a positive event to be reinforcing. For example, it is not uncommon for some children to misbehave if that increases the attention they receive from parents, even if the latter’s behavior outwardly may seem punishing. (To the children, some parental attention of any kind may be preferable to no attention.) Similarly, some followers may see the verbal reprimands and notoriety they receive by being insubordinate or violating company policies as forms of attention. Because these followers enjoy being the center of attention, they may find this notoriety rewarding, and they may be even more likely to be insubordinate in the future. We will examine some myths surrounding the use of punishment. Three of these myths were reviewed by Arvey and Ivancevich and include beliefs that the use of punishment results in undesirable emotional side effects on the part of the recipient, is unethical and inhumane, and rarely works anyway (that is, it seldom eliminates the undesirable behavior). B. F. Skinner’s work in behavioral psychology lent support to the idea that punishment is ineffective and causes undesirable side effects. He based his conclusions on the unnatural behaviors manifested by rats and pigeons punished in various conditioning experiments. Despite the dangers of generalizing from the behavior of rats to humans, many people accepted Skinner’s contention that punishment is a futile and typically counterproductive tool for controlling human behavior. This was so de-spite the fact that considerable research regarding the emotional effects of punishment on humans did not support Skinner’s claim. Parke, for example, suggested that undesirable emotional side effects of punishment might occur only when punishment was administered indiscriminately or was particularly harsh. With respect to the myth that punishment is unethical or inhumane, it’s been suggested that there is an ethical distinction between “future-oriented” and “past-oriented” punishment. Future-oriented punishment, intended to help improve behavior, may be effective in diminishing or eliminating undesirable behavior. Past-oriented punishment, or what we commonly think of as retribution, on the other hand, is simply a payback for past misdeeds. This sort of punishment may be more questionable ethically, especially when it is intended only as payback and not, say, as deterrent to others. Moreover, when considering the ethics of administering punishment, we must also consider the ethics of failing to administer punishment. The costs of failing to punish a potentially harmful behavior, such as unsafe workplace practices, may far outweigh those associated with the punishment itself. A third myth concerns the efficacy of punishment. Skinner and others claimed that punishment did not result in permanent behavior change but instead only temporarily suppressed behavior. Evidence to support this claim was found in one study in which incarcerated prisoners had a recidivism rate of 85 percent. However, this high recidivism rate may be due to the fact that criminals may have received punishment primarily for retribution rather than for corrective purposes. Judicious administration of sanctions, combined with advice about how to avoid punishment in the future, may successfully eliminate undesirable behaviors on a more permanent basis. Furthermore, it may be a moot point to argue (as Skinner did) that punishment only temporarily suppresses behavior; so long as sanctions for misdeeds remain in place, their impact on behavior should continue. In that regard, the “temporary” effects of punishment on behavior are no different from the “temporary” effects of reinforcement on behavior.

After reading this please address the 3 myths surrounding punishment in 300 words,

1. Punishment is ineffective and causes undesirable side effect.

2. Punishment is unethical or inhumane.

3. Punishment does not result in permanent behavior change

Do you agree or disagree with these perspectives and why?

Order with us today for a quality custom paper on the above topic or any other topic!

What Awaits you:

• High Quality custom-written papers

• Automatic plagiarism check

• On-time delivery guarantee

• Masters and PhD-level writers

• 100% Privacy and Confidentiality