Some bacteria differ widely in form and can change shapes when exposed to different environments. This property is known as… (a) polymorphism (b) pleomorphism (c) anamorphism (d) telomorphism 30. Which of the following cell structures are found only in prokaryotic cells? (a) endoplasmic reticulum (b) ribosomes (c) nucleolus (d) pili 31. The periplasmic space is found.,, (a) only in gram-positive bacteria (b) inside the cytoplasm, right below the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria (c) inside the mitochondria (d) between the inner cell membrane and outer cell wall membrane of gram-negative bacteria 32. Bacteria grow (increase number of cells) by which of the following processes? (a) binary fission (b) cytokinesis (c) meiosis (d) all of the above 33. Which of the following is NOT found on the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria? (a) lipoteichoic acid (b) lipopolysaccharides (c) peptidoglycan (d) teichoic acid 34. Which of the following is NOT true of endospores? (a) they are resistant to drying (b) they are resistant to heat (c) they can form in conditions with depleted nutrients (d) they are reproductive structures 35. The charged, phosphate end of a membrane phospholipid is… (a) nonpolar (b) hydrophobic (c) hydrophilic (d) none of the above 36. What is phototaxis? (a) movement toward or away light (b) movement in circles (c) movement toward or away from chemical substances (d) movement in a zigzag pattern 37. Which of the following prokaryotic external structures allow for motility in fluid environments? (a) conjugation pili (b) fimbriae (c) glycocalyx (d) flagella 38. Which of the following best describes active transport? (a) movement of substances from high to low concentration (b) movement of substance down its concentration gradient (c) movement of substances down its concentration with the assistance of transporters (d) transportation of substances across membranes using energy, such as ATP 39. When osmotic pressure of fluid is high, this means that the concentration of solutes in the fluid is and will cause cells to (a) low, swell (b) low; shrink (c) high; swell (d) high, shrink 40. When the fluid surrounding a cell has a higher concentration of solutes compared to the inside of the cell, the fluid is said to be… (a) isotonic (b) hypotonic (c) hypertonic (d) none of the above 41. Which of the following is used for bulk transport in and out of the cell? (a) active transport (b) exocytosis (c) endocytosis (d) b&c 42. Eukaryotic methods of motility include… (a) flagella (b) cilia c) pseudopods (d) all of the above 43. Mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells have separate DNA from nuclear DNA. Which of the following provides an explanation for this? (a) central dogma of biology (b) endocytosis theory (c) endosymbiotic theory (d) cell theory 44. One function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is… (a) to produce ribosomes (b) to produce membrane bound proteins (c) to produce cytosolic proteins (d) to produce lipids 3

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