1. Plants and animals all use proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, nucleic acids for biochemical reactions! Which three of these can yield energy in the body?

2. Define- Metabolism

3. Breaking down larger molecules is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Give an example:

4. Building up larger molecules is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Give an example.

5. Oxidation of glucose with oxygen yields what plus energy?

6. NOTE this reaction in relationship to the blood pH (measure of H+) reaction from LP1: ______ (g) + H2O (l) <–> H+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)

7. Pathways (steps) can be _ _ _ _ _ _ or cyclical. Most happen in the presence of (co)enzymes.

8. Some people simplify metabolism by following the carbons. How many carbons in GLUCOSE?___

9. How many in PYRUVATE?_______ In an acetyl group?_____

10. List the four stages and draw them also. Memorize and understand this. Much disease and healing involves interactions in metabolism.

11. What is the only pathway to obtain some ATP for quick energy without oxygen? Hint: It uses glucose. _____________

12. What does aerobic mean?

13. What does anaerobic mean?

14. Some poisons like _ _ _ _ _ _ _ interfere with metabolism.

15. List the main coenzymes in metabolism. Their reactions are oxidation/ reduction.

16. Which of the four stages yields the most ATP?

17. What are the clues to the outcomes of biochemical reactions?

18. When oxygen is absent, pyruvate is stored as _ _ _ _ _ _.

19. Sour milk contains lactic _ _ _ _. Note the -COOH group and -COO- group.

20. Dose makes the poison. Define ketone bodies.

21. Under which conditions are they made?

22. Which of the three energy- yielding biomolecules is the only one to contain nitrogen?

23. This excess nitrogen combines with hydrogen and forms ammonia which is toxic to the body by raising blood pH. What does normal metabolism do to rid excess nitrogen in the body?

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