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Potential Post-Lab Questions on Geologic Maps 1. Name two of the most important elements of a map. 2. What do lava flows usually look like on a geologic map? What about igneous intrusions (plutons)? A. paint splatters B. blobs C. bands 3. What kind of plate boundary caused the emplacement of the Smartville Complex into the Sierra Nevada? Draw and label a cross section of this plate boundary. Label the Smartville Complex on your sketch. 4. Be able to read and visualize what strike and dip symbols mean on a map. 5. Be able to recognize and identify geologic folds on geologic maps.

type of metamorphism: region, contact, contact/metasomatic

4. phylite5. amphibolite 6. skarn 7. schist

: Astrophysicists readily interpreted Hubbles relation as evidence of a universal expansion. The distance between all galaxies in the universe was getting bigger with time, like the distance between raisins in a rising loaf of bread. An observer on ANY galaxy, not just our own, would see all the other galaxies traveling away. with the furthest galaxies traveling the fastest. This was a remarkable discovery. The expansion is believed today to be a result of a Big Bang which occurred around 13 billion years ago. a date which we can calculate by making measurements like those of Hubble. The rate of expansion of the universe tells us how long it has been expanding. We determine the rate by plotting the velocities of galaxies against their distances, and determining the slope of the graph, a number called the Hubble Parameter, (Ho), which tells us how fast a galaxy at a given distance is receding from us. So Hubbles discovery of the correlation between velocity and distance is fundamental in reckoning the history of the universe. Redshift and Recessional Velocity We can calculate the recessional velocity of an object by measuring the redshift of light emitted by the object. Redshift is the shifting of spectral lines from their emitted wavelength ((emitted)) to their observed wavelength (observed)). Redshift (z) is defined as: observed) – emitted) emitted) Once we know the redshift, the recessional velocity of the object is found by: km (1 + 2)2-1 3 x 105 (1 + 2)2 +1 Distance and Brightness We have mentioned before that we can calculate the distance (d) to an object if we know how bright the object appears to be (m) and comparing that to how bright the object should be if viewed up close (M). (m) is called the apparent magnitude and (M) is called the absolute magnitude of the object. The following equation relates these brightness measurements to the distance (as measured in parsecs): d=10(-+) Procedure Calculating the Hubble Constant (H) 1. Using the equations given in the introduction, find the distance and recessional velocities of the galaxies in the following table. 2. Make a graph with recessional velocity (in km/s) on the y-axis and distance (in megaparsecs (Mpc)) on the x-axis. 3. Plot each of the galaxies in the table on this graph. 4. Find the slope of the best fit line for the plotted data. 5. Compare your slope to the accepted value of Hubble’s constant (H. 70 km/Mpe) by computing your percent error. For each galaxy in the table below, assume that the absolute magnitude is (M = -21) and the emitted wavelength of light is (ſemitted) =656 nm). Galaxy Apparent Magnitude (m) observed) (nm) 2.5 656.08 2 4 656.15 3 12.5 663.9 4 15.5 687.5 5 18.5 793.76 19 833.1 7 20.5 1089 8 21 1272.6 9 21.4 1561.3 10 22 3536 Lab Questions Please use complete sentences and show calculations to receive full credit. 1. Describe redshift in your own words 2. What is Hubble’s Constant? 3. Why do objects that are farther away appear less bright? 4. Are farther objects moving away from us faster, or more slowly?

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