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Growth curve in batch culture characterized by five stages: i) lag phase, ii) exponential (log) phase, ii) stationary phase, iv) death phase, and v) phase of prolonged decline. Describe characteristics of lag phase 11. There are many Nutritional Factors That Influence Microbial Growth. One of them is “growth factors”. What are the growth factors? Explain with one example. 12, Based on nutritional requirement (carbon, energy, and electron sources), some microorganisms are photoautotrophs, photobeterotrophs, chemoorganotrophs, and chemolithotrophs. What is a carbon and energy sources of the chemolithotrophs? Carbon sources: a. b. Energy sources: 13. In selection of an antimicrobial procedure, choices depend on numerous factors, such as i) Type and number of microbes, ii) Environmental conditions, iii) Risk of infection, and iv) Composition of infected item. In the Environmental conditions, Dirt, grease, body fluids can interfere with heat penetration and action of chemicals, pH, temperature can also influence effectiveness. What other environmental factor is possibly involved in the antimicrobial procedure? 14. Filtration method to remove or destroy microbes is sometimes much better than heating methods. What is a possible benefit for the filtration method compared to the heat methods?

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