Instructions

Write AND ANSWER a new high-quality short-answer question addressing the following issue: environmental versus inherited epigenetic tags. Recall that we read about inherited epigenetic markers in Dias & Ressler (2014), and you answered questions about environmentally influenced epigenetic markers at the GR gene on your take home exam. 3. (20 points) Explain four different things that can regulate or determine whether a given gene is “turned on” and made into a protein (in healthy animal cells, not in vitro or in culture). Use a well-labeled diagram if necessary. I 4. (20 points) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) like the GMO salmon we discussed earlier in the semester are regulated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – recall that we read about the authors checking for transgene stability over multiple generations, in line with the FDA requirements. Some novel genetically engineered organisms like potato, apple, and mushroom have been engineered to reduce browning by reducing activity of the PPO gene. At Penn State, scientists used CRISPR/Cas9 to target PPO in button mushrooms (see the attached brief article by Waltz 2016). However, the USDA has opted not to regulate these CRISPR-modified mushrooms as GMOs. Argue whether heritable gene editing by CRISPR/Cas9 creates a GMO – or not. In your answer, consider any differences between GMO salmon and PPO inactivation in mushrooms. 5. (20 points) Find and summarize an interesting article from the primary literature or that cites the primary literature (from Science Daily, New York Times, NPR, etc.). Describe how molecular biology plays a role in the technique, the findings, or the application

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