Instructions

What are the signals that include B cell responses to protein antigens and polysaccharide antigens? What are the major differences between primary and secondary antibody responses to a protein antigen? How do helper T cells specific for an antigen interact with B lymphocytes specific for the same antigen? Where in a lymphocytes specific for the same antigen? Where in a lumph node do these interactions mainly occur? What are the signals that induce heavy-chain isotype switching, and what is the important of this phenomenon for host against different microbes? What is affinity maturation? How is it induced, and how are high-affinity B cells selected to survive? What are the characteristics of antibody responses to polysaccharides and lipids? What types of bacteria stimulate mostly these types of antibody responses?

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