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What diagnostic studies might be performed as part of a surgical procedure, and how should the CST prepare for them. Discuss these studies and what role the surgical tech plays in handling the specimens.

Identify the highlighted structure. Submit Previous Answers Request Answer Identify the highlighted structure. Submit Previous Answers Request Answer The highlighted structure is surrounded by what erectile tissue?

LAB ACTIVITY Differential WBC Count You will be examining images and taking a tally of the numbers of each type of leukocyte. Your report should include: a table which lists the numbers of cell types found in each image AND the totals for neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes out of the 100 WBCs depicted. Refer to each image by the number appearing within it. Suggest whether or not your differential count indicates a healthy person. If not, suggest potential causes of the skewed percentages. There are 100 cells, each cell represents one percentage point. There are exactly 100 identifiable leukocytes in the nine separate images. Assume that all of these slides were made from the same blood sample. You will also see the surrounding RBCs and, on same images, platelets. In some cases, but not all, the cell features have been digitally enhanced. The differential count is the percent of each of the five cell types out of the 100 total. Tips for identifying WBCS You should be familiar with all physical characteristics of the five types of circulating leukocytes. However, you can streamline your tally with the following reminders: You should be familiar with all physical characteristics of the five types of circulating leukocytes. However, you can streamline your tally with the following reminders: 1. If the nucleus has at least three lobes the cell is most likely a neutrophil. No other type of leukocyte has more than two lobes to its nucleus. 2. If the cell has a nucleus that “fills it”, with barely any cytoplasm noticeable, it is a lymphocyte. Also, lymphocytes are smaller than other WBCs and usually not much larger than the surrounding RBCs. 3. Cells that are significantly larger than neutrophils are monocytes. These cells will have no apparent granules and will have the same light blue, clearer cytoplasm as the lymphocytes have. 4 Cells with pinkish granules are eosinophils. 5. Cells with chunky, dark blue-purple granules are basophils. The most common leukocytes are neutrophils and lymphocytes. Identify the less common cells only if they definitely have the relevant unique characteristics 24 7 5 21 23 18 71% .. Metro by T-Mobile 11:46 AM differential count activity.doc WHITE BLOOD CELLS White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes, are immune system cells and are located throughout the body. Out of many varieties, typically only five types circulate in healthy blood. Unlike red blood cells (RBCs), leukocytes have nuclei. Many WBC nuclei have extensions called lobes, which appear differently when cells are viewed from different angles. The shape of the nucleus and number of lobes are sometimes used to distinguish among white blood cells. Cell organelles form granules which are more easily seen in some leukocytes than in others. The appearance and color of these granules is another useful distinguishing characteristic. Finally, the overall sizes of circulating white blood cells vary. Some are almost as small as RBCs while others are considerably larger. Therefore, there are several criteria that can be used to distinguish and quantify WBCs in the lab. Wright Stain Prepared slides of blood are often treated with Wright Staining. Leukocytes are nearly colorless and it would be impossible to distinguish them otherwise. Wright Stain is combined from Methylene Blue, which is alkaline (basic) and Eosin, which is acidic and red. Knowing the make-up of Wright Stain is useful, since some WBCs are named based on their affinities for its components Leukocytes in Blood Next Dashboard Calendar To Do Notifications Inbox .. Metro by T-Mobile 11:47 AM 71% differential count activity.doc Leukocytes in Blood The five types of WBCs that you will see are separated into two groups, based on whether or not you will see granules. They are generally hard to see in the types of agranular WBCs, lymphocytes and monocytes. The granular leukocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes are the smallest of WBCs; most are just a bit larger than RBCs. Their nuclei are spherical and seem to fill them. It may be difficult to see just a thin rim of cytoplasm at the periphery of each cell. Monocytes are the largest circulating leukocytes. They may be 2-3x the size of the surrounding RBCs. You should be able to see some clear, light blue cytoplasm surrounding a nucleus that’s bi-lobed. Monocytes transform into macrophages, which then enter other body tissues. Granulocytes: Neutrophils have nuclei with several lobes, typically from 3-6. Given their position on the slide, it may appear that there are several nuclei but what you see are just the lobes projecting upward. These cells have equal attraction to the two components of Wright Stain. The granules are a pale lavender color. Eosinophils have an affinity for the Eosin in Wright stain. Their granules are in the pink-red range. This is the easiest way to identify them. Basophils have an affinity for the Methylene Blue (which is “basic”). Therefore, their large, chunky granules are blue-purple in color. The granules are so dark and large that it’s sometime difficult to see the nucleus, as it’s obscured, of a basophil. Next Dashboard Calendar To Do Notifications Inbox 71% .. Metro by T-Mobile 11:47 AM differential count activity.doc Symphocyte terutrophil cestoph huonghi platele money Can you identify these cells? Measurements of Leukocytes While the total number of WBCs per unit volume of blood is a relevant measurement, this is not what you will be assessing in this exercise. You will be performing a Differential WBC Count which compares the percentages of each of the five cells to what is expected in healthy blood. Neutrophils normally comprise 50-70%, Lymphocytes 25-35% Monocytes 4-6%. Eosinophils 1-3%, and Basophils <1% of circulating WBCs. Values that deviate significantly from these ranges provide diagnostic information based on the different functions of WBCs. Bacterial infection, for example, Next Dashboard Calendar To Do Notifications Inbox ..11 Metro by T-Mobile 11:47 AM 71% differential count activity.doc Values that deviate significantly from these ranges provide diagnostic information based on the different functions of WBCs. Bacterial infection, for example, elevates neutrophils. Lymphocyte proliferation is associated with antibody production. Elevated eosinophils may indicate a parasitic worm infection. Basophils are more numerous with chronic inflammation These are just a few simplified examples of what abnormal differential WBC values might suggest. A much more complete understanding of leukocyte functions and immune system physiology, in addition to the consideration of other clinical test results and signs and symptoms experienced, would provide more accurate and complex assessment. LAB ACTIVITY Differential WBC Count You will be examining images and taking a tally of the numbers of each type of leukocyte. Your report should include: a table which lists the numbers of cell types found in each image AND the totals for neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. lymphocytes, and monocytes out of the 100 WBCS depicted. Refer to each image by the number appearing within it. Suggest whether or not your differential count indicates a healthy person. If not, suggest potential causes of the skewed percentages. There are 100 cells, each cell represents one percentage point. Next Dashboard Calendar To Do Notifications Inbox

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