Instructions

3. To understand behaviors such as stealing, biologists have extended the concept of natural selection to include frequency-dependent selection.

a. What is frequency-dependent selection? (2 pts)

b. Explain how frequency-dependent selection leads to an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) in which a small fraction of the population steals for a living (scroungers) while the majority of the population procures resources without stealing from other members of the group (producers)? What happens when the percentage of scroungers exceeds the percentage at the ESS? What happens when the percentage of producers exceeds the percentage at the ESS? (3 pts)

c. Describe a factor that influences the percentage of scroungers when the population reaches an ESS. (2 pts)

Above all, I really need help with question B! this is the main one I’m concerned about.

thank you!!

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