What is nutritional complexity as it pertains to bacterial growth? (a) lack of certain enzymes, resulting in the increased need to obtain nutrients from environment (b) diversity of enzymes, resulting in a decreased need environmental nutrients (c) abundance of one type of enzyme to reduce need of environmental nutrients (d) all of the above 61. A growth medium that consists of only water, glucose, beef extract, and peptones would be considered… (a) a defined synthetic medium (b) a chemically defined medium (c) a complex medium (d) a & D 62. A candle jar would be used for growing… (a) gram-negative bacteria (b) gram-positive bacteria (c) anaerobes (d) thermophiles 63. techniques must be strictly adhered to prevent the accidental contamination of stock cultures. (a) germination (b) direct count (c) differential (d) aseptic 64. All of the following are ways microorganisms adapt to limited nutrients except… (a) synthesize increased amount of enzymes for uptake and metabolism of limited nutrients (b) form metabolically active highly resistant endospores (c) synthesize enzymes needed to use a different nutrient source (d) adjust the rate at which they metabolize nutrients 65. Which of the following would be considered a trace element? (a) carbon (b) zinc (c) oxygen (d) phosphate 66. A is an organism that uses CO2 as its carbon source and light as its energy source. (a) photoautotroph (b) chemoautotroph (c) photoheterotroph (d) chemoheterotroph 67. How do enzymes catalyze reactions? (a) increase activation energy (b) decrease activation energy (c) block allosteric site (d) all of the above 68. Which of the following is the more reduced form of high energy carriers? (a) FAD (b) FADH2 (c) NAD* (d) all of the above 69. Which of the following is/are true of allosteric inhibitors? (a) they directly block the active site of an enzyme (b) some examples include ibuprofen and tylenol (c) they cause distortion of the active site by binding to a region outside of the active site (d) they cause enzymes to completely unravel, losing enzyme function 70. Which of the following is/are true of how temperature affects enzymatic reactions? (a) increasing temperature indefinitely will increase rate of reaction (b) increasing temperature up to an optimal temperature will increase rate of reaction (c) temperatures that are too high can cause enzymes to become denatured, decreasing the rate of reaction (d) b&c 71. What process most directly powers ATP synthase to produce ATP during the electron transport chain? (a) establishment of the proton motive force (b) passing of electrons to O2 (c) Krebs cycle (d) glycolysis 72. Pyruvic acid is metabolized in the absence of oxygen during the process of… (a) glycolysis (b) fermentation (b) oxidation (d) dark reactions 73. During which stages of aerobic respiration would you expect substrate-level phosphorylation to occur? (a) glycolysis (b) Krebs Cycle (c) electron transport chain (d) a &b 74. What happens during substrate-level phosphorylation? (a) adenosine diphosphate gains a phosphate from a substrate (b) phospholipids lose a phosphate to form the phospholipid bilayer

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