1. What is the importance of the bone marrow stroma for B cell development?
  2. What would be the effect of anti-IL-7 antibodies on the development of B cells in the bone marrow and at which stage would development be impaired? Explain.
  1. What would be the effect of a genetic defect that resulted in a lack of recombination between the switch regions in the immunoglobulin C-region genes?
  1. Why do class switching and somatic hypermutation produce B cells that are better able to defend against invaders?
  2. Immunodeficiency diseases arise when individuals lack one or more components of their immune system, and are identified by an individual’s history of persistent or recurrent infections. Some genetic defects (mutations or small deletions) can cause profound defects in an immune cell population; alternatively, in some cases, such small defects occur that there is no visible effect on immune responses. You analyze five individuals, each of which has a single inactivating mutation in a region of one of these three loci. These mutations are each indicated by a red ‘X’ in Figure 3, and are numbered 1–5.
    1. For each of these inactivating mutations, what alterations and/or defects that would be seen in the repertoire of antigen receptors found in mature B and T cells in that individual?
    2. For each mutation, indicate whether the individual would likely show any immunodeficiency, such as a history of recurrent infections.

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