An ion is all of the following EXCEPT… (a) a charged atom (b) an atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons (c) a cation or an anion (d) an atom with the same number of protons as electrons 13. A molecule that releases H* into solution is known as… (a) a buffer (b) an acid (c) a base (d) neutral 14. Which of the following is/are example(s) of a colloid? (a) NaCl mixed in water (b) gelatin mixed in water (c) agar mixed in water (d) b&c 15. What property of water allows for raft spiders to walk on water? (a) lonic bonding (b) covalent bonding (c) hydrogen bonding (d) peptide bonding 16. When glucose is mixed in water, water is the and glucose is the (a) solvent; solute (b) solute, solvent (c) solution; solute (d) solution; solvent 17. Polymerization of various biological molecules, such as polysaccharides, occurs by which of the following reactions? (a) hydrolysis (b) dehydration (c) catabolic (d) all of the above 18. Food consists of molecules with lots of energy stored in their chemical bonds. What is true about how microorganisms use nutrients? (a) when microorganisms break the chemical bonds in nutrients, they release energy (b) it takes microorganisms more energy to break bonds in nutrients than are released (c) all energy the microorganisms receive from nutrients comes from anabolism (d) microorganism break down hydrogen bonds to release electrons as energy 19. Sucrose is made from the monosaccharides… (a) glucose & glucose (b) glucose & fructose (c) glucose & galactose (d) glucose & mannitol 20. A bond created between a carboxyl group of one amino acid and an amino group of a second amino acid is known as a… (a) hydrogen bond (b) covalent bond (c) peptide bond (d) b&c 21. Triglycerides are composed of… (a) glycerol (b) fatty acids (c) phospholipids (d) a & b 22. Cholesterol is an example of which of the following biological molecules? (a) carbohydrate (b) lipid (c) protein (d) nucleic acid 23. The amino acid sequence of a protein is classified as which level of protein structure? (a) primary (b) secondary (c) tertiary (d) quaternary 24. Which of the following types of bonds is responsible for the double stranded nature of DNA? In other words, what allows guanine to base pair with cytosine and adenine to base pair with thymine? (a) covalent bond (b) ionic bond (c) hydrogen bond (d) hydrophobic interactions 25. Organic molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures are (a) elements (b) isotopes (c) isomers (d) cations 26. In DNA, the nucleotide adenine always base pairs to… (a) cytosine (b) guanine (c) thymine (d) uracil 27. Cocci cells that divide in random planes develop a grape-like cluster of cells. What type of cell arrangement is this? (a) staphylococcus (b) diplococcus (c) streptococcus (d) tetrad 28. Bacilli cells usually only divide in one plane. (a) true (b) false 2

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