Instructions

outline how the innate, humoral, and/or cell-mediated immune responses would deal with an extracellular, encapsulated bacterium or a virus that infects epithelial cells. For both infections assume that this is the first time that the person has been infected. Be sure to include cell types and molecules (antibodies [note the isotype], complement pathway, etc) that would be involved in pathogen clearance.

What would you expect to happen if excess nutrients (e.g. nitrate, phosphates) were added to aquatic systems where photosynthetic protists were the primary producers?

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